Glutathione - Your Brains Master Antioxidant Defense
Free radicals and oxyradicals play an important role in the development and progression of many brain disorders such as brain injury, neurodegenerative disease, schizophrenia and Down syndrome.
Glutathione is the brain's master antioxidant and plays an important protective role in the brain.
According to Dr. Jimmy Gutman, "The brain is particularly susceptible to free radical attack because it generates more oxidative by-products per gram of tissue than any other organ."
Many neurological and psychiatric disease processes are characterized by... abnormalities in glutathione metabolism and antioxidant defenses."
Generation of reactive oxygen species (free radicals) and oxidative damage are an important cause of neuron (brain cell) death from brain injury.
Chemicals that cause toxicity to certain brain cells are known to decrease cerebral glutathione (GSH), making the cells more vulnerable to reactive oxygen species (ROS). (1)
On the other hand, over-expression of the glutathione peroxidase (GPX) enzyme potently decreases cell death from brain injury. (2)
Brain Injury and Glutathione - The Gender Difference
Researchers at Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh have found that males and females respond differently to brain injury. (3)
In animal models, levels of glutathione remain constant in females who have suffered a brain injury, but drop by as much as 80 percent in males with the same injury.
When glutathione levels drop, brain cells die much more quickly. This suggests that boys with brain injuries may require different life-saving treatments than girls.
N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), a precursor of glutathione, already approved for use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat people who have overdosed on acetaminophen, may be an effective treatment for brain injury in boys whose brains are deprived of oxygen.
Brain Disorders and Glutathione - A Genetic Cause?
Genetics researchers have found that the glutathione S-transferase gene controls the onset of Alzheimer's, Parkinson's disease and determines, not if we get these diseases, but when. (4)
The glutathione S-transferase gene has previously been linked to the risk for Parkinson's disease among people who used pesticides.
A previous article covered the importance of glutathione in Parkinson's Disease.
Alzheimer's Disease and Glutathione
Free radicals and oxidative damage in neurons is known to be a primary cause of degenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease.
Amyloid-ß peptide (Aß) accumulation in senile plaques, a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), has been implicated in neuronal degeneration.
Amyloid plaques encroaching on the brain increase the production of free radicals, or oxidative stress. Antioxidants, such as vitamin C and E "mop up" the damaging free radicals.
Glutathione (GSH) precursors can prevent death of brain cells induced by amyloid plaques in Alzhiemer's disease, while substances that deplete GSH increase cell death. (5)
Evidence has been piling up over the link between the amount of an amino acid called homocysteine in the blood and the chance of developing Alzheimer's.
For people not genetically predisposed to developing Alzheimer's, cholesterol and homocysteine, largely caused by an unhealthy lifestyle, are the core causal factors.
Welsh GP, Andrew McCaddon, showed that the more homocysteine that patients with Alzheimer's had, the worse their mental performance, and the worse their "cognitive impairment," the less they had of the antioxidant glutathione. (6)
Glutathione and Mood Disorders
Studies have found that the mood stabilizing drug, valproate, used to treat epilepsy and bi-polar disorder, regulates expression of the genes that make glutathione-S-transferase (GST).
In addition, chronic treatment with lithium, another commonly prescribed mood stabilizer used in treating manic-depression, also increased levels of GST.
These findings led researchers to conclude that glutathione S-transferase may be a novel target for mood stabilizing drugs. (7)
Alcohol Consumption and Glutathione
Alcohol abuse is known to impair memory and other brain functions and increase brain cell death. A new study in rats has shown that alchol consumption causes fewer new brain cells to form and results in greater cell death. (8)
But rats that were fed alcohol along with Ebselen - a glutathione peroxidase mimic that acts as a free radical scavenger - showed no similar reduction in brain-cell formation and no increase in cell death.
Substances that Boost Glutathione Levels and Protect Brain Cells
Taking glutathione itself as a supplement does not boost cellular glutathione levels, since it breaks down in the digestive tract before it reaches the cells.
However, intravenous glutathione therapy and glutathione precursors or dietary supplements are effective in boosting intracellular levels of glutathione.
Intravenous Glutathione Injections: Intravenous glutathione injections have been shown to produce amazing and rapid results, in patients with Parkinson's disease. Following even a single dosage of intravenous glutathione, many of the symptoms of Parkinson's disease rapidly improve, often in as little as 15 minutes.
Glutathione Precursors: In the Alzheimer's study conducted by Welsh GP, Andrew McCaddon, adding the glutathione precursor, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) to a protocol that lowered homocysteine levels by simple supplementation with B12 and folate, resulted in prompt, striking, and sustained clinical improvement in nearly all the patients. (9)
Cucurmin (turmeric):Studies have shown that the Indian curry spice, cucurmin, has neuroprotective effects because of its ability to induce the enzyme, hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1), which protects neurons exposed to oxidant stress. Treatment of brain cells called astrocytes, with curcumin, increases expression of HO-1 protein as well as glutathione S-transferase. (10)
Ebselen: Ebselen is a glutathione peroxidase mimic and potent synthetic antioxidant that acts as a neuroprotective agent and an inhibitor of free-radical induced apoptosis (cell death). It can protect brain cells from the neuro-toxic effects of alcohol consumption. (8)
Undenatured Whey Protein: Undenatured whey protein provides glutathione precursors, has been shown to raise intracellular glutathione levels in clinical trials, and has anecdotally been reported to improve the symptoms of Parkinson's disease.
References:1. Journal of Neurochemistry, Vol. 88, No. 3, 2004 513-531
Copyright © 2004 Priya Shah
Lipovarin Review: How Well Does It Work?
Beneficial Effects of Vitamins and Minerals To Your Blood
Vitamins, minerals and other nutrients are essential to the health and functioning of the body and are delivered throughout the body by the blood. There are several vitamins and minerals that directly affect the blood and its ability to perform its important tasks within the body. For the blood to be able to perform its duties properly and efficiently as well as the body and mind in general it is necessary to meet the standard recommended daily intake levels of vitamins, minerals and other nutrients each and every day.
7 Vitamins Every Arthritis Sufferer Should Know About
A deficiency of vitamins can lead to a variety of health problems, including some forms of arthritis.
If you're constantly digging your hand into a jar of vitamins, popping one into your mouth faster than you can chew the last one, then take this word of advice.
Are Glyconutrients for Real?
If glyconutrients are for real, why aren't they all over the news? Why haven't we heard about this before? These are just a couple of the skeptical questions encountered when sharing the life changing gift of glyconutrients with others. How do we know the science behind these products is real, and has the scientific community really embraced the field of glycobiology?
GlutImmune: Powder for Immunity and Digestion
GlutImmune? is a very convenient high absorption source of glutamine. Glutamine is an amino acid that allows for improved immune system and brain function, balanced blood sugar levels, digestive tract health, and increased muscle mass.
Why Is Thiamin So Important?
What Is Thiamin?
The Bodys Own Production of Nitric Oxide Can Help Prevent Heart Attack & Stroke
Nitric Oxide, a gas that occurs naturally in the body, may do more than any prescription drug to prevent heart attack and stroke.
What Is The Best Muscle Building Supplement Available Today?
What's the best muscle building supplement available today? You might not like the answer.
Vitamin E to Protect Against Parkinsons Disease
Moderate amounts of vitamin E in the diet can protect against Parkinson's disease, according to a study in the Lancet Neurology (2005;4:362?5).
What If You Could Turn Back The Clock To When You Were healthy?
What if there was a solution to protecting and restoring your health. What if you could turn back the clock and return to when you were healthy. You wonder why we have such horrific health problems, yet its right in front of your eyes. You all know that nutrition is important, but do you know why. What if given the right nutrition your body could heal itself of anything, and I mean anything. What if this was true and all you needed to do was give your body the right nutrition.
The Secret to a Longer, Healthier, Happy Life is a Strong Immune System!
How can I improve my health and lifestyle beyond diet and exercise?
Fetuses and infants simply must get enough omega-3 oils for ideal brain development. In a research study of premature babies, those who were fed breast milk had eight points higher IQ at age eight than those fed a standard bay formula. This suggests that the higher amounts of DHA in breast milk can attribute to increased intelligence.
Vitamin Supplements ? A Pill is Not Always the Answer
Vitamins are organic compounds that our bodies use, in very small amounts, for a variety of metabolic processes. Taking vitamins 'just in case' is not a habit that anyone should get into and it is always recommended that vitamins are taken through wholesome and quality food.
The Myths and Facts of Vitamin D and Sun Exposure
Unverified reports claiming that unprotected, intentional sun exposure is necessary for Vitamin D formation are getting quite a bit of media coverage lately.
Ephedra Ban Lifted
April 14,2005 federal judge Tena Campbell of the federal district court in Salt Lake City Utah reversed the ban on ephedra.
Vitamin B5 - Your Digestive System Depends On It
Vitamin B5 or pantothenic acid plays a supporting role in the secretion of hormones, such as cortisone. In so doing, Vitamin B5 assists body metabolism, wards off body allergies and helps keep the skin, muscles, and nerves in optimum condition. The human body also needs the help of Vitamin B to release energy as well as to metabolize fat, protein, and carbohydrates. Without this vitamin, the body will encounter problems with creating neurotransmitters, certain hormones, and haemoglobin. This gives you an idea how important this vitamin is to the body's vital functions! Great sources of Vitamin B5 are beef, brewer's yeast, eggs, fresh vegetables, kidney, legumes, liver, mushrooms, nuts, pork, royal jelly, saltwater fish, and whole-wheat foods.Vitamin B5 DeficienciesResearch also indicates that lack of enough Vitamin B5 in the body can lead to fatigue, headaches, nausea, depression, and even moodiness.If you find yourself prone to infection, fatigue, abdominal pains, sleep disturbances and neurological disorders, you might consider taking prescribed amounts of Vitamin B5. Is your diet utterly lacking in non-refined foods? Are you taking a lot of alcohol? If you answered yes to any of these questions, you will need more Vitamin B5 in your system. Vitamin B5 DosageThe Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) is between 10 to 100 mg. Exceeding the limit usually leads to diarrhea; with taking 15 or more times the limit usually leading to hypersensitive teeth. Vitamin B5 performs best when taken with the rest of the B complex vitamins, and with Vitamin A, C, and E.
Vitamins for Your Healthier LIfe
B-Vitamins Help Promote Healthy Arteries and Heart
A 2002 study reported, funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation reported that a six-month regiment of taking folic acid, vitamin b12, and vitamin b6 can be instrumental in the prevention of recurring blocked arteries in coronary angioplasty patients.
Fish Oil and Possible Disease Prevention
Researchers working at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center state that DPA and DHA, primary components of fish oil, provide substantial protection against coronary heart disease. This study involved more tha six thousand middle-aged men who had samples of their blood taken between 1973 and 1976. During the next seven years, 94 of these men had a heart attack or died suddenly due to heart disease. The 94 men were matched with 94 healthy men and the fatty acid profile of their blood samples compared.
|© Athifea Distribution LLC - 2013|