Precious Stones The Big Five - Part 4 The Diamond
The diamond is generally regarded as the premier gem in the world of precious stones.
Of all the precious stones the diamond has the simplest composition; it is merely crystallized carbon. The most common substance that is known, a substance that is present in every plant, animal and mineral on the earth.
Diamonds come mostly from the mines in South Africa, but are also found in Brazil, India, Australia and even in the United States.
The diamond is the hardest substance known, being #10 on the Mohl scale, despite it's hardness, the diamond is not indestructible; diamond will cut diamond; it can be burned in the air, being carbon and will leave behind carbon dioxide gas.
The facets of a cut diamond can be worn away to some extent by the constant rubbing of clothing. The diamond is also brittle, and can fracture if struck against a hard surface.
Diamonds have a wide range of color; most numerous are the whites, yellows, and browns in a great variety of shades; then come the greens; red stones of strong tints are very rare, as are also blue, which have been found almost exclusively in India; other tints of occasional occurrence are garnet, hyacinth, rose, peach-blossoms, lilac, cinnamon, and brown; black, rarities. Diamonds without tint or flaw are rare indeed and even most of the world's famous diamonds have imperfections.
The origin of the diamond's name is the Greek word adamas, meaning unconquerable; from the same root spring our words adamant and adamantine.
The origin of the diamond, according to classical mythology, was its formation by Jupiter, who transformed into stone a man, Diamond of Crete, for refusing to forget Jupiter after he had commanded all men to do so.
The Facts About Diamonds
A diamond's value is based on four criteria: color, cut, clarity, and carat. The clarity and color of a diamond usually are graded. However, scales are not uniform: a clarity grade of "slightly included" may represent a different grade on one grading system versus another, depending on the terms used in the scale. Make sure you know how a particular scale and grade represent the color or clarity of the diamond you're considering. A diamond can be described as "flawless" only if it has no visible surface or internal imperfections when viewed under 10-power magnification by a skilled diamond grader.
As with other gems, diamond weight usually is stated in carats. Diamond weight may be described in decimal or fractional parts of a carat. If the weight is given in decimal parts of a carat, the figure should be accurate to the last decimal place. For example, ".30 carat" could represent a diamond that weighs between .295 - .304 carat. Some retailers describe diamond weight in fractions and use the fraction to represent a range of weights. For example, a diamond described as 1/2 carat could weigh between .47 - .54 carat. If diamond weight is stated as fractional parts of a carat, the retailer should disclose two things: that the weight is not exact, and the reasonable range of weight for each fraction or the weight tolerance being used.
Some diamonds may be treated to improve their appearance in similar ways as other gemstones. Since these treatments improve the clarity of the diamond, some jewelers refer to them as clarity enhancement. One type of treatment - fracture filling - conceals cracks in diamonds by filling them with a foreign substance. This filling may not be permanent and jewelers shouldtell you if the diamond you're considering has been fracture-filled.
Another treatment - lasering - involves the use of a laser beam to improve the appearance of diamonds that have black inclusions or pots. A laser beam is aimed at the inclusion. Acid is then forced through a tiny tunnel made by the laser beam to remove the inclusion. Lasering is permanent and a laser-drilled stone does not require special care.
While a laser-drilled diamond may appear as beautiful as a comparable untreated stone, it may not be as valuable. That's because an untreated stone of the same quality is rarer and therefore more valuable. Jewelers should tell you whether the diamond you're considering has been laser-drilled.
Imitation diamonds, such as cubic zirconia, resemble diamonds in appearance but are much less costly. Certain laboratory created gemstones, such as lab-created moissanite, also resemble diamonds and may not be adequately detected by the instruments originally used to identify cubic zirconia. Ask your jeweler if he has the current testing equipment to distinguish between diamonds and other lab-created stones.
Diamond jewelry: diamond rings, diamond earrings, diamond wedding rings, diamond wedding bands, diamond necklace, diamond watches, diamond pendants and diamond bracelets are some of the most sought after gemstone creations. Your eyes tell you how beautiful a piece of diamond jewelry is, but how do you know you are getting your money's worth?
A little knowledge can go a long way to help you purchase a beautiful piece of diamond jewelry at a fair price.
When shopping for diamond jewelry online, apply these tips.
1. Shop with companies you know or do some homework before buying to make sure a company is legitimate before doing business with it.
2. Take advantage of information and referrals from an Internet company you have come to trust.
3. Get the details about the product, as well as the merchant's refund and return policies, before you buy.
4. Look for an address to write to or a phone number to call if you have a question, a problem or need help.
The diamond is the birthstone for the month of April.
Sam Serio is an Internet Marketer, musician and a writer on the subject of jewelry and gemstones. For more information on jewelry and gemstones, we cordially invite you to visit http://www.morninglightjewelry.com to pick up your FREE copy of "How To Buy Jewelry And Gemstones Without Being Ripped Off." This concise, informative special report reveals almost everything you ever wanted to know about jewelry and gemstones, but were afraid to ask. Get your FREE report at http://www.morninglightjewelry.com
The Origin of Americas Corporate Elite (BC)
Ephesus had a shrine to the Anatolian mother-goddess and the Cretan Lady of Wild Things that was later incorporated into the Greek worship of Artemis. (33) This magnificent statue has many 'cosmic eggs' on it that are extremely relevant to the Berber painting of ostrich eggs that are found in the Saharan finds mentioned in Carthage as well as connected to the Druid's eggs. A Cambridge scholar I saw on a TV show recently was still calling these eggs 'breasts'. It is ludicrous and almost funny if you look at a picture of the statue with over a hundred 'breasts'. What level of academic ineptitude is this? We have seen many who know the worldwide importance of the cosmic egg including Gimbutas, but then perhaps this scholar knows were his bread is buttered. Smyrna is mentioned by Grant going back long before our present focus and shows Amazons (Kelts as we have shown) were once a part of the picture, but this is probably before the fall of Ariadne on Crete and goes back to times such as Malta shows had 2800 years before the Great Pyramid - with no weapons. Smyrna is the site of a great Merovingian family with a name you'll quickly recognize. Onassis, who married into another Merovingian family through Jackie Kennedy. Thus we ask you to remember what the old saws do say about history repeating itself.
A Short Biography on Some of Europes Most Loved and Hated Monarchs - Pt 1 Vlad Tepes (Dracula)
Vlad Tepes or Dracula was born in 1431, in the fortress of Sighisoara, Romania. His father was the military governor of Transylvania and a member of the Order of the Dragon. The order was created in 1387 by the Holy Roman Emperor and his second wife, Barbara Cilli.
Flashes of memory stream into my consciousness. They take me back thirty years plus. I was a boy then, a newcomer to a poor and tough neighborhood. My parents, of moderate means and daring to a fault, had decided to move there after my father had accepted an editing job in the federal government. They had taken a lease on a low-rent brick house, which was also run-down, covered in filth, and littered with trash. I do not mince my words: Previous tenants had been pigs that got along with bugs and rats.
Sixties: The Decade of Rebellion
It is safe to say that in the sixties everything changed: society, fashion, music, art, media, everything was impacted. It was a time when everyone truly believed they could make a difference, when it seemed as if the world had limitless possibilities and a few people trying really hard, willing to sacrifice everything, could change the direction of everything.And it proved the power of believing in yourself. Ordinary people did change things, extraordinary things like the attitude of society at large, like the way people viewed war and music and art. Student protests, often led by folk musicians, helped lead to the demise of the Vietnamese War, helped make social consciousness and equality for all a living fact, helped people really achieve the freedom that America and the West have always striven for. It was a remarkable time, and no wonder that many people look back to it as a time of dreams and passion.Social Activism, Celebrities, and MusicRock music became its own genre in the mid-1950s. Less than ten years later, the Beatles burst onto the music scene, the vanguard of a revolution in music. Parents hated them, sometimes even worse than they hated Elvis. But the kids loved them, and would buy anything with a picture of John, Paul, Ringo, or George. Their innovations paved the way for later artists, both British and American: the Rolling Stones, Jimi Hendrix, Bob Dylan, The Doors, The Mamas and the Papas ? dozens of legendary bands have the Beatles to thank.By the middle of the decade, the Beatles were writing songs about social issues, like war and loneliness. And other bands followed suit. There was a lot to write about; in the United States, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was leading American Blacks to unheard-of levels of social equality, and soon the British would put special military troops in Northern Ireland to quell the unrest there, leading to nearly-open guerilla warfare with the IRA. Women all over the world were following a movement to equal rights. And anti-war activists like Jane Fonda were making a name for themselves, both famous and infamous. Food: Trends Good And BadThough founded much longer ago, McDonalds and other fast food restaurants grew into a major power in the food industry during the 60s, probably driven by the high energy of the time coupled with an increasing dependence on automobiles as a means of transportation. At the same time the stuff that's bad for you became popular, other people began to realize that you really are what you eat. Because of new age conservationist movements, those people began to eat healthier: whole grains, organic foods they grew themselves, and semi-vegetarianism, vegetarianism, and vegan lifestyles.War: What Is It Good For?You can't talk about the sixties, the decade of peace, without talking about war. Particularly, you have to look at the Vietnamese war. The US entered the country in Southeast Asia in the early 1960s at the request of the French ? who subsequently abandoned the war. And America's presence in Vietnam grew, gradually forcing a draft of the very young men who were just discovering the dizzying freedom the sixties ushered in. The result? An impressive increase in the numbers of young people going to college, and an equally impressive increase in the number of young men moving to Canada.Ref: http://www.sixties.gb.comBut why was this war so different from Korea, only about ten years earlier? The simple answer: television. Reporters with cameras covered the bloodiest parts of the war, capturing the pain on both sides in film. And those films made their way to broadcast television, which for the first time could be found in half or more American homes. It was difficult to watch the images of war without being moved, and it was a real shock to teenagers and young adults who had never known the touch of violence before.But there was another kind of war going on, a social war. Blacks in America were discovering their power, partly spurred by the thought of the draft and partly by the energy of the decade carrying them forward. Women throughout the world were discovering not only their political power, but the social freedom brought about by a little pill ? the birth control pill. For better or worse, relations between the sexes would never be the same.Sixties Fun, Games, and FashionToys were undergoing change, too. Physical games, like Frisbees and Twister, became very popular indeed. Boys began collecting Matchbox cars, the latest rage; and the self-image of little girls everywhere was changed as Barbie dolls, Sindy dolls, and other anatomically correct dolls that weren't baby dolls entered their pink frilly rooms. Older boys were finding they had much more to look at than ever before. Girls' skirts moved from the near-ankle-length full skirts of the fifties to the short ? shorter ? shortest skirts of the sixties. Short skirts and midriff-revealing hipster jeans also made it important that as little cellulite as possible showed ? girls could no longer wear industrial-strength girdles. The most effective way of getting rid of cellulite? Be as thin as possible. The other problem with changing clothes was that if you used garters (or suspenders, if you're in Britain) they showed under the short tight skirts. The answer? Pantyhose, an invention of the devil.Inventions and InnovationsComputers also moved from being a scientific curiosity to a genuine industrial innovation; punch cards and tape were the programming tools of the time ? until the integrated circuit, the precursor to today's microchips. This innovation led to the development of the hand-held pocket calculator by Texas Instruments, though calculators did not come into general use until the early seventies. But the world didn't understand how much science and technology was really going to change their lives ? until Neil Armstrong spoke to the world from the surface of the Moon in 1969. It was a fitting end to a remarkable decade.
The Oldies? Nostalgia? Watchyacallit?
Our culture is defined by what we have access to!With the concentration of media the access as been restricted to the newest tunes...
On December 26, 2004 a massive tsunami swept through Thailand killing thousands of people, and changing the lives of thousands more. Although the Tsunami happened months ago, we are still feeling the affects of it today.
Ancient Indian Civilizations - Where Did They All Go?
In 1350 AD we were still quite a few centuries from settling at Plymouth. I have been luckily in that I have found adequate records back to 1200s in my family tree. But this is the time of the end of the inhabitants and Civilization of the Mesa Verde Cliff Dwellers. Some stayed back we suppose, they are the Anastasi Indians. What else was going on in the world during this time? Well as the Indians were leaving there was another civilization flourishing in Thailand and the Thais people had built many city-states.
Nessie, the Beast of the Loch
They were fierce hill tribes in what is now Scotland, and we called them Picts. The name seems to mean "The Painted People" for they were known to love bright body art and multi-coloured clothing. They were artists, prolific carvers of stone and from the carved standing stones still found in the region around Loch Ness, we can see that the Picts were fascinated by animals, carefully etching their likeness into the surface of the stone. And they left us a mystery.
The Trickster of Folklore
Folklore includes a traditional trickster figure, the subject of many stories in a cycle. Trickster tales are in the animal tales genre, with the trickster himself -- he seems always to be male -- identified with a particular animal. These include the fox in Japan, mouse deer in Southeast Asia, the coyote and the spider among the Native Americans, the tortoise and spider in West Africa, and the mantis in Southern Africa.
What Sets Chinese Painting Apart From Western Painting
Because of different instruments, materials and cultural background, Chinese paintings have their own image and content in comparison to other types of paintings. Unique appearance of Chinese Painting owes much to the use of the Chinese writing brush and the Chinese paper (rice and silk). There are four essential elements used in the creation of Chinese Painting, the brush, ink, paper, and the ink stone. Lacking any of them the job cannot be done.
Berenguer Sauniere - This Place is Terrible
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Queen Mary I of England was born in 1516 to Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon and was the first British monarch to rule in her own right. Mary was pronounced queen in 1553 and ruled for five years after the death of Edward VI. Mary was well educated and learned to speak Latin, Spanish, French and Italian. She was also taught Greek, science and music.
Mythology and Parables in Modern Communication - Part 4
At the end of Part 3 in this series I was using my own Inspirational experiences as examples of how Self and Soul can erupt into your life. After the book manuscripts stopped flowing, music stepped in to take its place. I had not played the guitar in 20 years and all of a sudden I was being inspired to write song lyrics. Seven years later there are over 125 songs in my songbook, half of which have been put to music. My testimony here is factual. I've lived what I'm writing about in this mini-course. And through my years of practice I saw Inspiration, with Self & Soul behind the scenes, burst through for many individuals.
Old Russian Symbolics on a White and Blue Porcelain
Russian porcelain is widely known and is often used as a traditional gift.The art of decorative painting on porcelain is handed down by craftsmen from generation to generation. Few of us, however, have asked ourselves what exactly is depicted on a Gzhel teapot or a Lomonosov porcelain cup.The blue color, glazed cobalt, has a long history.
Gold Jewelry -The Rest of The Story
Gold is one of the metals taken from the earth and is probably the first metal known to man. Its first use has been traced back to 3600 B. C. and was probably originally obtained in Egypt, as the ancient methods of obtaining gold in Egypt are illustrated in early rock carvings. It is said in the book of Genesis that Abraham, in the twentieth century B. C., when he went out of Egypt, was very rich not only in cattle but in gold and silver both in dust and ingots. In Exodus xxv, 29, we read that Moses was commanded by the Lord to make spoons of gold for the Tabernacle. In the writings of Homer, Sophocles, Herodotus, Pliny and others, gold is frequently mentioned.
Painting Philosophy of Peruvian Artist
Learn How to Solve Problems With a Feng Shui Mirror
A mirror, when becoming a feng shui mirror, can be used to many more things than allowing us to see how we look. Feng shui teaches how a feng shui mirror can be used in order to solve many different problems, and we will describe some of these uses through the next few lines.
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Fancy Dress Parties
Fancy dress parties have been around since for centuries and were particularly popular in Europe during the 16th and 17th centuries. Italy is particularly well known for contributing to the popularity of fancy dress parties. There, the masquerade ball reached frenzied proportions. By the time Queen Victoria took the throne much of Europe, especially England, had lost its appetite for masquerade but still had a keen interest in fancy dress parties. The Queen's interest in literature, poetry and history had a tremendous impact on the themes for fancy dress parties throughout her long reign.
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